Early Intervention

The young child is an amazingly able learner.  Strong, family-centered early intervention is essential to take advantage of this critical learning period for very young children with hearing loss.  Research clearly indicates that families who receive support and guidance that empower them to assume their role as the child’s first and most important teachers, will raise children poised to achieve at greater levels than families that do not.  Professionals responsible for providing intervention have an incredible opportunity to harness the capacity of families to launch their child with hearing loss into language learning.  Armed with knowledge, skills and resources, the Early Interventionist can serve as an important guide on the language journey that leads to school readiness and later literacy achievement.

General Information

Alexander Graham Bell Association:  A national organization that helps families and healthcare and education professionals understand childhood hearing loss and the importance of early intervention and to allow children to listen, talk, and thrive in mainstream society.

AG Bell Academy for LSL:  The AG Bell Academy for Listening and Spoken Language offers professional certification for Listening and Spoken Language Specialists (LSLS™) as either Auditory-Verbal Educators (LSLS Cert. AVEd™) or Auditory-Verbal Therapists (LSLS Cert. AVT™). To be eligible for LSLS™ certification, professionals seeking certification must meet high-level requirements for formal education, supervised practicum, professional experience and post-graduate study/continuing education. Professionals seeking certification must be mentored by a LSLS certified professional for at least three years before qualifying to take the LSLS Written Exam for certification.  The mission of the Academy is advancing listening and talking through standards of excellence and international certification of professionals.

Babies Can’t Wait Program Action Bulletin: Eligibility Requirements for Children with Diagnosed Hearing Loss:  This document is a bulletin written and disseminated by Babies Can’t Wait to clarify the recent change in eligibility for services through their program for children who have been diagnosed with hearing loss. Possible collaborative services between the Georgia PINES and BCW programs are also described.

Beginnings of North Carolina: Provides parents of D/HH children with information on early intervention, communication options, audiology, assistive technology, legislation, and school issues.  Information is accessible in both English and Spanish.

Born Learning - Ages & Stages: Born Learning, a collaboration between United Way of America, the Ad Council, Civitas, and Families and Work Institute, is a public engagement campaign that helps parents, caregivers, and communities create quality early learning opportunities.   The Ages & States portion of the site provides highlights of a child’s development at different ages, including a child’s health, growth and development, different nurturing aspects, and safety.

Bright and Beyond Playtime Activities:  Provides caregivers with a set of activities that are printed on a set of 52 toteable, sturdy, colorful wipe-clean cards. The cards feature scores of quick and creative interactive activities that use materials around the home.  Available decks include:  newborn (0-12 mos.), infant (12-24 mos.), toddler (24- 36 mos.), and preschool (ages 3-5).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Hearing Loss in Children:  Provides information on hearing loss in children, screening and diagnosis, types of hearing loss, treatment and intervention services, and recommendations and guidelines for persons throughout the United States.

15 Principles for Reading to Deaf Children:  A comparative study of deaf children with hearing parents and deaf children with deaf parents.  Hearing parents and teachers can learn from the read aloud strategies used by deaf parents.  The following 15 principles have been identified based on research that examined deaf parents and deaf teachers reading to deaf children:  Deaf readers translate stories using American Sign Language; Deaf readers keep both languages visible (ASL and English); Deaf readers are not constrained by the text; Deaf readers re-read stories on a storytelling to story reading continuum; Deaf readers follow the child's lead; Deaf readers make what is implied explicit; Deaf readers adjust sign placement to fit the story; Deaf readers adjust signing style to fit the story; Deaf readers connect concepts in the story to the real world; Deaf readers use attention maintenance strategies; Deaf readers use eye gaze to elicit participation; Deaf readers engage in role play to extend concepts; Deaf readers use ASL variations to sign repetitive English phrases; Deaf readers provide a positive and reinforcing environment; and Deaf readers expect the child to become literate.

First Years: First Years is a professional distance education program housed at the University of North Carolina.  This program offers a certificate in Auditory Learning for Young Children with Hearing Loss.

Georgia Department of Public Health - Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention: This website is for Georgia’s Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention (EHDI) program. The site contains a link to a downloadable resource guide in both English and Spanish.

Georgia Early Hearing Detection & Intervention (EHDI) Information - NCHAM: Provides information on the Georgia EHDI, including links to Georgia grants, guidelines, and the legislation.  The site State’s Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention site and also provides information on the EHDI program for parents.

Georgia Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention Protocol:  This document contains the recommended flow chart for implmeneting newborn hearing screening and follow-up in Georgia.

Hands & Voices - Resources about D/HH Issues: Provides a variety of links to resources about deaf and hard of hearing issues. The resources include many different organizations, deafness and hard of hearing Web sites, articles on deafness issues, and advocacy/legal websites.

Hearing Impaired Professional Preparation:  The goal of H.I.P.P. is to provide master's level speech-language pathology students with the skills and knowledge needed to provide services to children who have hearing loss. Students who receive this opportunity to receive specialized training, in addition to their coursework at Kent State University and The University of Akron, receive many opportunities to work with a wide range of professionals who serve families of children with hearing loss. Additionally, students take additional courses that provide them with additional information about hearing loss, cochlear implant technology, hearing aids, and FMs, in addition to the wide range of therapy techniques.

Intervention Flowchart for Infants Identified with Hearing Loss:  This document contains a flow chart illustrating the recommended process to be followed when infants are identified with hearing loss in Georgia. This process was developed to implement the program goal of enrollment in intervention by six months of age.

John Tracy Clinic:  The John Tracy Clinic offers several services including:  1) early detection of hearing loss and information on individualized interventions; 2) a spoken language learning opportunity for infants and preschoolers who are deaf and hard-of-hearing and their parents; 3) guidance, support and instruction for parents in the special skills necessary to help their children learn spoken language; and 4) distance education serving parents and families throughout the world.

Listening for Life:  This website is designed for parents of children with hearing impairments, to better understand the practice of Auditory-Verbal Therapy. It will provide an introduction to AVT and it's principles. It will guide you through the wonders of AVT and the possibilities for your child as he/she develops into a healthy, happy hearing adult.

National Association of the Deaf:  NAD is a non-profit organization that works to support and advocate for deaf and hard of hearing people and their families in education, employment, and everyday life.

Natural Communication Ohio:  A nonprofit organization in Northeast Ohio, Natural Communication Ohio is defined by its purpose: to benefit children who are deaf or hard of hearing through support, information, and encouragement to their parents and families. On a regular basis, NCI members -- the parents and families of children with hearing loss -- meet to share information and experiences. NCI endorses teaching and learning philosophies for children who are deaf or hard of hearing that maximize their potential to develop amplified hearing and spoken language. While this is NCI's official definition, we do so much more for the families who choose to become members.

Option Schools:  An online resource for information about schools that provide listening and spoken language services for children who are D/HH.

Oral Deaf Education Programs:  Oral deaf education is a collaborative, family-centered educational approach that develops a child's speech and listening abilities along with confidence and life skills to meet the challenges of the greater world. This means that parents and family play a key role right from the start. Oral deaf education integrates the earliest and most natural intervention, the most current and inclusive education along with today's sophisticated hearing technologies, to enable children with a hearing loss to learn to listen and talk.

Teaching Babies with Hearing Loss to Listen and Talk:  This website links to mini-video lessons, with each lasting approximately three minutes.  Topics include: 1) Just Wait, 2) Let’s Whisper, 3) Hold Out, 4) Life’s a Jungle, 5) Not Throwing, 6) Speaking Means Control, and 7) Repetition, Repetition, Repetition.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia - Cochlear Implant Program: The Professional Preparation in Cochlear Implants (PPCI) is an intensive program for professionals providing early intervention (0-5) and transition services for children with cochlear implants.

WE Listen International, Inc.:  WE Listen International Inc. located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is a global consulting company which provides professional education, training and consultative services for professionals around the world in the fields of Auditory-Verbal Practice, Auditory Rehabilitation, and Auditory Learning who work with children, teens and adults who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families.

Hearing, Audiology, and Auditory Learning

HOPE (Habilitation Outreach for Professionals in Education): An article outlining auditory skill development from a cochlear implant perspective.  Outlines the four broad categories of auditory skills, acquiring auditory skills, and the relationship between language and listening. 

The Listening Room: Provides free instructions, instructional video, and materials to registered users for daily classroom checks of a student’s personal and classroom amplification.

Utah State University - Research Supporting Auditory Learning: The Department of Communicative Disorders & Deaf Education provides links to full text research articles on auditory learning and spoken language.

Literacy & Learning

Accessible Materials Project:  The Accessible Materials Project (AMP) provides video resources to support language, literacy, and academic development among  signing students with hearing loss.  Numerous videos and links are available at each internet location listed.  Various video models are appropriate for ages pre-school through high school and are designed to be used by educational professionals, parents, and students.  For further information or to request DVDs for individual use contact AASD AMP at AASD.AMP@doe.k12.ga.us.

AMP on Facebook/ AMP on YouTube/ AMP on SchoolTube

Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools and Programs for the Deaf:  CEASD provides an opportunity for professional educators to work together to improve schools and educational programs for deaf and hard of hearing people.  CEASD works to involve all stakeholders in education  to examine what is done in the education of deaf and hard of hearing students.  Examination of how to impact educational policy and decision making is also a part of what CEASD strives to do.

Clipart.com:  For a small fee, you can subscribe on a weekly, monthly or yearly basis to the clip art website; there are 10 million downloadable images.

DLTK's Crafts for Kids: DLTK's Crafts for Kids features a variety of fun, printable children’s crafts, coloring pages and more, including projects for holidays, educational themes and some of children's favorite cartoon characters.

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center at Gallaudet University:  Provides information and resources related to the development and education of deaf and hard of hearing children.  Includes Info to Go, Training and Technical Assistance, National Outreach Resources, Products and Publications, Shared Reading Project, and the Cochlear Implant Education Center.

Raising Deaf Kids:  Raising deaf kids addresses many issues faced by parents of a child with a hearing loss.  These topics are discussed through stories from real parents telling stories about making decisions for their child.

“Reading aloud to children who are deaf or hard of hearing”:  This independent study by Eileen Bouldin Brankatelli examines the benefits and most effective techniques of reading aloud to children who are deaf or hard of hearing, including an instructional video and booklist for parents.

Reading is Fundamental - Leading to Read: Reading is Fundamental (RIF) web site has a great kids section that is packed with educational games and activities.  The "Leading to Reading" section is designed for babies and toddlers, while "Reading Planet" is for ages 6-15.  The "Watch and Listen" stories are good in both sections.  RIF provides a monthly ideas calendar that is ideal for parents or caregivers.  Some materials are also available in Spanish.

The Read Aloud Handbook:  A “how-to” guide for teachers, parents, and caregivers on the topic of reading aloud to children of all ages.  It explains the reasoning behind the importance of reading aloud to children and also notes the short-term and long-term benefits of including reading aloud in the classroom or home.  The book offers tips and strategies for how to make the most of read-aloud time.  It also answers frequently asked questions from parents and teachers.  The book concludes with a large “Treasury of Read-Aloud Books” for children of all ages.  

Zero to Three - Early Literacy and Language Tips and Tools: The National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families provides free downloads that describe resources and activities for facilitating early language and literacy development from birth to five.

Language & Communication

American Society for Deaf Children:  ASDC has been a resource for families of deaf and hard of hearing children since 1967.  ASDC works to support and educate families of deaf and hard of hearing children.  Their website includes news, online resources, articles and a blog related to the education and support of deaf and hard of hearing children and their families.

Kids World Deaf Net:  KidsWorld Deaf Net provides information, a virtual library of research related to deaf education and an online forum for parents and professionals involved in the education of deaf and hard of hearing children.

Language Builds Language:  Provides a case study and insight into how supporting a child’s home language can positively affect literacy. 

The Hanen Center:  The Hanen Centre is a family-focused early language intervention, supporting parents, speech-language pathologists and educators worldwide in their efforts to develop language and literacy skills in preschool children. The Hanen Centre has developed a comprehensive approach that enables parents and educators to play a primary role in promoting language development and emergent literacy skills in preschool children.

Vocal Development: This site, developed by researcher David Ertmer, is designed to share information about early speech development and to provide examples of the delightful speech sounds that children produce before they say words on a regular basis.


Expressive/ Receptive Language

Cottage Acquisition Scales for Listening, Language, and Speech (CASLLS): This curriculum includes a developmental checklist for assessment and planning for diagnostic therapy. The language section includes steps from pre-verbal through to complex sentences including pragmatic development.

Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale: This scale assesses preverbal and verbal areas of communication and interaction including: Interaction-Attachment, Pragmatics, Gesture, Play, Language Comprehension and Language Expression. The examiner can directly observe or elicit a behavior from the child or use the caregiver's report to equally credit the child performance. Results reflect the child's mastery of skills in each of the areas assessed at 3 month intervals. A parent questionnaire with guidelines for parent interview is also included.

SKI-HI Language Development Scale: This scale is developmentally ordered and contains a list of communication and language skills in varying intervals for different ages. Each age interval is represented by enough observable receptive and expressive language skills to obtain a good profile of a child's language ability.

Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT): A 30-minute play session is videotaped and every spoken and signed language utterance is transcribed. This analysis includes information regarding the number and types of spontaneous utterances that the child and caregiver produce. This analysis is intended to provide a portrait of the child's language, as well as the type of language the caregiver uses while communicating with the child. In order to measure the child's growth a videotape is made every six months.

The Bzoch-League Receptive-Expressive-Language Test (REEL-2), 2nd . Ed.: The REEL-2 is a scale designed for infants and toddlers up to 3 years of age. It measures and analyzes emergent language for intervention planning. Results are obtained from a parent interview and are given in terms of an Expressive Language Age, A Receptive Language Age, and a Combined Language Age.  (Available through Pro Ed, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard - Austin , Texas 78757-6897 (800) 897-3202 or (800) 377633 (fax) Web: http://www.proedinc.com)

The MacArthur Communication Development Inventory: The Inventory consists of words, gestures, and sentences.  These questionnaires/checklists ask parents to identify various words that their child either says or signs. It includes vocabulary relating to: things in the home, people, action words, description words, pronouns, prepositions, question words, as well as sentences and grammar. It is also available in Spanish.

The Reynell Development Language Scales III (RDLS III), 3rd ed.: The RDLS III assesses receptive and expressive language using real objects rather than pictures for the child to interact with. It is designed for children from 15 months to 7 years of age. The comprehension scale comprises sections such as agents and actions, attributes, locative relations, vocabulary and complex grammar, and inferencing, etc. The expressive scale comprises sections such as verb phrases, auxiliaries, clausal elements, inflections, etc.


Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT): The EOWPVT assesses a child's English speaking vocabulary by asking the child to name objects, actions and concepts pictured in illustrations. The test ends on 6 consecutive incorrect responses.  The EOWPVT is also available in Spanish.

Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT): The EVT measures a child's understanding of individual words (expressive vocabulary). It is designed for children 2 years 6 months to 18 years of age. Raw test scores are converted into standard cores, percentile ranks and age equivalents.  The EVT is also available in Spanish. 

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-4): The PPVT measures a child's understanding of individual words (receptive vocabulary). It is designed for children 2 years 6 months to 18 years of age. Raw test scores are converted into standard cores, percentile ranks and age equivalents. The PPVT-4 is also available in Spanish.

Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT): The ROWPVT assesses a student's knowledge of vocabulary by asking the child to point to the object being named. The test ends when the child cannot correctly identify the pictured meaning of the word in six out of eight consecutive items. The ROWPVT is also available in Spanish.


Early Speech Perception Test (ESP): The ESP test for Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children is a is a test battery of speech perception for profoundly deaf children as young as 3 years of age. The ESP may be used to establish objectives and to measure the effects of a hearing aid or cochlear implant in terms of their impact on the child's speech perception ability. The kit includes a manual, response forms, and a box of toys.

Identifying Early Phonological Needs in Children with Hearing Impairment: This is a standardized test used to assess how young children with hearing loss spontaneously use first-level phonological patterns. It numerically rates whether the child's patterns are missing, emerging, or mastered.  (Also available through via mail: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY)) Link goes to AGBell Home Page.

Paden-Brown Phonological Kit: This tool is designed to assess spontaneous use of first level phonological patterns in children with hearing loss. It utilizes a list of 25 words that are typically within the speaking vocabulary of young children with hearing loss.  (Available through: Med-El. Contact Linda C. Johnson at ljohnson@medelus.com (919) 314-1272 or (888) 633-3524)

Speech Assessment System:  The Speech Assessment System for Students who are D/HH examines the full complexities of the student’s speech production and it is criterion-referenced, allowing for the identification of individual strengths as well as areas needing attention.  It has multiple uses, including developing intervention goals and objectives, monitoring progress, evaluating program effectiveness, gathering outcomes data, including data for insurance purposes, and measuring generalization.

Spoken Communication for Students Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Multidisciplinary Approach: This curriculum includes a Student Speech Record (SSR) which is used to evaluate the following: non-verbal communication (attention, turn taking, eye contact, and breath support) and suprasegmentals, vowels and diphthongs, and consonants at the phonetic, phonologic, and pragmatic levels. The SSR also includes an oral peripheral examination form. This is the 2nd Ed. of the book; author Diane Heller Klein; Publisher Butte Publications,  ISBN 978-1-884362-95-8

St. Gabriel's Curriculum: St. Gabriel's Curriculum for the Development of Audition, Language, Speech, and Cognition curriculum outlines the development of early speech, the development of early auditory feedback skills, and an order for the acquisition of vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. It also provides a developmental checklist of phonological processes. (Also available via mail: Alexander Graham Bell Association, 3417 Volta Place, NW, Washington, DC 20007 202-337-5220 (V/TTY))

The Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale-3rd ed. : The Arizona-3 is a tool designed to identify mis-articulations and total articulatory proficiency of children ages 1.5 to 18 years old. The stimulus pictures show children in more current clothing styles and activities. The test materials also include ethnic diversity

The Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation 2: This test assesses a child's articulation ability by sampling both spontaneous and imitative speech production among children age 2 to 21 years old. Pictures and verbal cues are used to elicit single word answers that demonstrate common speech sounds. It measures the articulation of speech sounds and identifies and describes the types of articulation errors produced by the child.

The Ling Phonetic-Phonologic Speech Evaluation Record: A Manual: This tool is used to assess the segmental and non-segmental aspects of speech at both the phonetic and phonologic levels. The phonetic level responses are obtained through imitation. Phonologic level responses are obtained from spontaneous language samples.

Sign Language

Checklist of Emerging ASL Skills: This checklist provides a series of indicators to judge whether a deaf child has components of ASL in his or her communication system. The evaluator should not judge a child's skills based on English ability. The focus should be on ASL. The checklist should be filled out by at least three different evaluators who are familiar with the child and who are proficient in ASL. (Available in: Easterbrooks, S & Baker, S. Language Learning In Children Who Are Deaf And Hard Of Hearing: Multiple Pathways. (2002) Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Mass.)

MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for American Sign Language:  The MacArthur Communicative Develop Inventory for American Sign Language is a parent report that measures early sign production.  The Communicative Development Inventory is an inventory of sign glosses organized into semantic categories targeted to assess sign language skills in children ages 8 to 36 months. Forms can be ordered from the provided website.

Cognitive/ Intellectual

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (K-ABC II) (Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman):  Assessment of the intelligence and achievement of 2 ½ - 12 ½ -year-old children.

The Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) (Jean Newborg, John R. Stock, Linda Wnek):  A standardized individually administered assessment battery of key developmental skills in children from birth to 8 years-of-age.

Instructional Technology

HOPE - Using Interactive Software with Kids: HOPE recorded an online course that focuses on using interactive software as an option for children to improve auditory and language skills.

Tots-n-Tech - iPad Newsletter: Provides an overview of iPads and different ideas on how iPads can be used with infants and toddlers for more interactive learning.

Additional Considerations

HOPE - Auditory Learning and Cochlear Implantation:  HOPE-recorded course focusing on children who receive cochlear implants who have multiple and hearing loss.

HOPE - Bilingual Spoken Language Development:  HOPE recorded course for bilingual language development for children whose home language is not English. The course demonstrates that children with hearing loss can be bilingual.

Language Builds Language:  Provides a case study and insight into how supporting a child’s home language can positively affect literacy.

Understanding Deafness and Diversity:  Provides resources, research, lessons, interviews, links, and a forum to handle what it means to be a deaf student with disabilities (i.e., any deaf child with one or more disabilities) or a deaf student who has parents that speak a language other than English at home.

Understanding Deafness and Diversity – Links:  Provides links to help users better understand the “diverse” component to children who are deaf and diverse.  Links included are to government agencies and national organizations, among others.

Understanding Deafness and Diversity – Research:  Provides existing research that has been done with children who have disabilities and children who are English Language Learners from the general education setting, which has been applied to students who are deaf and diverse.


Georgia Council on Developmental Disabilities:  The Georgia Council on Developmental Disabilities is a federally funded, independent state agency that serves as a leading catalyst for systems change for individuals and families living with developmental disabilities. Through public policy initiatives, advocacy programs and community building, GCDD promotes and creates opportunities to enable persons with disabilities to live, work, play and worship as an integral part of society.

For additional resources for families and parents, please visit our Family Center Resources.